HAPTEN AND AJUVANT in Immunology


HAPTEN :

Haptens are small molecules  that elicit an immune response only when attached to a larger carrier molecule like Protein. the carrier molecule may be one that also does not elicit the immune response by itself ( in general only large molecules, infectious agents or insoluble foreign matters can elicit the immune response in body). once the body has generated antibodies to a hapten, the hapten molecule may able to bind to the antibody but it will not initiate an immune response.
   some haptens that are commonly used in molecular biology include Biotin, Dinitrophenol etc. 



ADJUVANT :

An adjuvant is a pharmacological or immunological agent that modifies the effect of other agents. adjuvants can be added to a vaccine to modify the immune response boosting it such as to give a higher amount of antibodies and a longer-lasting protection, thus minimizing the amount of injected foreign materials, adjuvants may also be used to enhance the efficiency of vaccine by helping modify the immune response to a particular type of immune system cell.
     adjuvants are also used in the production of antibodies from immunized animals.
There are different classes of adjuvants that can push immune response in a direction, but the most commonly used adjuvants includes - Aluminium hydroxide and paraffin etc. 


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